UNIVERSITY OFAGRICULTURALSCIENCES, BANGLOREAGRICULTURAL COLLEGE, HASSANTOPIC :Genetically Modified OrganismPRESENTED TO:DR. professor , Biotechnology,Agricultural college, Hassan.
GMO (Genetically Modified Organism)GMO (Genetically Modified Organism) 3 2 Feb 2002 - the effects that GM foods might have on human health and the use of the A record of this evidence is posted on the Royal Society's website substantial equivalence might best be applied in the future, including, as we .
What is a GMO?What is a GMO?A genetically modified organism is oneA genetically modified organism is onewhose genetic material has beenwhose genetic material has beenaltered using genetic d using genetic engineering. Genetically modified organisms, orGenetically modified organisms, orGMOs, are commonly used in foodsGMOs, are commonly used in foodsand medicines.
This has led to concernabout the dangers they might cause toabout the dangers they might cause tothe environment and to human healththe environment and to human health 4.
How?By eliminating, modifying or adding copies of specific genes oftenfrom other organisms through modern molecular biology techniques. Other names: Recombinant DNA (rDNA)Genetic engineeringGene splicing 5.
The two most commonThe two most commontypes of GMO’s aretypes of GMO’s are Foods – canola , soya bean , golden riceFoods – canola , soya bean , golden ricecorn and aspartamecorn and aspartame Medicines - Insulin, hormones andMedicines - Insulin, hormones andvaccinevaccine 6. Food GMO’sFood GMO’s Crops are modified so when farmer killCrops are modified so when farmer killweeds with herbicides the crops can withweeds with herbicides the crops can withstand the exposure to the herbicide – killingstand the exposure to the herbicide – killingthe weeds and not the cropthe weeds and not the crop Although it is not as common, some types ofAlthough it is not as common, some types ofGMOs are modified to increase theirGMOs are modified to increase theirnutrient content. Corn and soybeans are twoexamples of crops that have higher-nutrientexamples of crops that have higher-nutrientGMO versions versions available. Medicine GMO’sMedicine GMO’s Genetically modified medicines can beGenetically modified medicines can beproduced cheaper and ed cheaper and easier. Some GMO's are : insulin, thyroidSome GMO's are : insulin, thyroidhormones and the hepatitis B vaccinehormones and the hepatitis B vaccine(insulin being the oldest)(insulin being the oldest) 8.
Other Types of GMO’sOther Types of GMO’s• Plants and CropsPlants and Crops• MicrobesMicrobes• MammalsMammals• InsectsInsects• Aquatic LifeAquatic Life 9. GMOs HistoryGMOs History First GMO created in 1973First GMO created in 1973 After years of testing andAfter years of testing andresearch, GMOs wereresearch, GMOs wereintroduced to farmersintroduced to farmers In the 1990s, geneticallyIn the 1990s, geneticallymodified foods becamemodified foods becameavailable in storesavailable in stores 10.
19781978GenentechGenentech Becomes the first toBecomes the first tosynthesize insulin, later theysynthesize insulin, later theycreate a human growthcreate a human growthhormone which was used tohormone which was used toenable dwarf children to growenable dwarf children to growto a normal a normal size. Genentech’s Humulin is theGenentech’s Humulin is thefirst consumer productfirst consumer productdeveloped through moderndeveloped through modern ineering.
19821982MonsantoMonsanto Introduced a bovineIntroduced a bovinegrowth hormone usedgrowth hormone usedin cows to increasein cows to increasemilk production. They were among theThey were among thefirst to geneticallyfirst to geneticallymodify a plant cell inmodify a plant cell in1983.
19921992 Calgene’s Favr SavrCalgene’s Favr Savrtomato is approved fortomato is approved forcommercial production by thecommercial production by theUS department of department of agriculture.
TheFDA declares that geneticallyFDA declares that geneticallyengineered foods are notengineered foods are notdangerous and do not requiredangerous and do not requirespecial regulation (History ofspecial regulation (History ofgenetic engineering, 2012genetic engineering, 2012).
TodayTodaySoybeansSoybeans 93% of soybeans93% of soybeansplanted in the d in the U.
Soybeansare used in productsare used in productssuch as animal feed,such as animal feed,prepackaged mealsprepackaged mealsand the oil is used inand the oil is used inmany industrialmany industrial ations Use the slide to explain that there are currently only 10 crops that have been on several subjects on the webpage Top 10 Consumer Questions About GMOs, As a homework assignment, have students visit the GMO Answers website and .
Sfalls under the category of afalls under the category of aGMO. Maize is the most widelygrown grain crop in thegrown grain crop in theAmericas, it is used to makeAmericas, it is used to makesugar substitutes such as highsugar substitutes such as highfructose corn syrup, a largefructose corn syrup, a largequantity of processed foodsquantity of processed foodscontain corn and is also used tocontain corn and is also used tomake ethanol, a biofuel that ismake ethanol, a biofuel that ismixed with gasoline to decreasemixed with gasoline to decreasethe amount of pollutants emittedthe amount of pollutants emittedby motor motor vehicles. TomorrowTomorrowStill in DevelopmentStill in Development Various productsVarious productsincluding vaccines,including vaccines,vitamin enrichments,vitamin enrichments,hormones that result inhormones that result infaster maturation andfaster maturation anddisease e resistance. Only time can tell if theOnly time can tell if therisks involved in usingrisks involved in usingGMOs will outweigh theGMOs will outweigh the ts.
Golden riceGolden riceAdvantage:It contains Vitamin-A,so children in developingcountries won’t become blindDisadvantage:Poor countries becomedepentent on rich countrieswhich have the technics forengineeringExamples of the potential benefits andrisks of GM 16 The acronym GMO refers to genetically modified organisms. The seeds from the best plants are saved and planted for next season's harvest. Humans have practiced selective breeding since the beginning of agriculture. GMOs: This 12-slide presentation gives a quick introduction into defining GMOs, differentiating .
Evaluating gmo perspectives through labeling
Long- lasting tomatoesLong- lasting tomatoesAdvantages:- GM tomatoes can remain freshlonger- GM tomatoes can tolerate alengthier transport timeDisadvantage:- Tomatoes are resistant toantibiotics 18. What are people’s concernsWhat are people’s concerns Is this food safe?Is this food safe? Should food be labeled?Should food be labeled? Are there adverse environmentalAre there adverse environmentaleffects?effects? Patenting of seedsPatenting of seeds Discrimination against the poorDiscrimination against the poor Who benefits?Who benefits?All of these concernsapply to food andagriculture in general 19.
Genetic Modification of ConventionalGenetic Modification of ConventionalCropsCrops 61% of corn61% of corn 83% of cotton83% of cotton 80% of canola80% of canola 89% of soybeans89% of soybeans Other crops: rice, tomatoes, potatoes,Other crops: rice, tomatoes, potatoes,Hawaiian papaya , chicory , crook neckHawaiian papaya , chicory , crook necksquashsquash 20. Reduce use of pesticide and other Toxic chemicals Desired characteristics of food are achieved and ina shorter time Improves nutritional value.
Gene technology is the best solution to the problemof world hunger.
Environmental Hazards from Pesticides• Substantial health impactson workers• Pollution of naturalecosystems/ waterways• Loss of insect biodiversityin agroecosystems• Creation of secondarypests• Creation of insect racesresistant to pesticides 22.
Genetics is always betterthan chemicals:GM Cotton with aBacillus thurengiensisCry gene is resistantto Cotton Bollworm What is a Genetically Modified (GM) Food? the gene sequence that codes for the desired trait; Insert the gene sequence into the genome of the plant cell..
All GM foods have beenAll GM foods have beenextensively tested and theyextensively tested and theyare as safe as other foodsare as safe as other foodsin the market the market place.
GM crops can be madeGM crops can be madeinto convenience andinto convenience and“junk” food just like organic“junk” food just like organiccrops and other crops!crops and other crops!3. Nutrition depends on theNutrition depends on thefood, not the method offood, not the method ofcrop breedingcrop breeding 24. Disadvantages Unacceptable to some groups to copy genes.
Genetically modified crops and food - friends of the earth
Agriculture has narrowed the gene pool andAgriculture has narrowed the gene pool andcaused a loss of biodiversitycaused a loss of biodiversityWild Progenitors and RelativesLand RacesElite Lines 27. Agriculture is the main cause ofAgriculture is the main cause ofenvironmental change and degradationenvironmental change and degradation 28.
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